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Technical Data Go Top

The Allowed Deviation of Specification & Dimension (ADSD): Go Top
1. The ADSD of Normal Type Granite should accord with the stipulates in SHEET 1 & 2.
2. The ADSD of Special Type Granite could be negotiated by both parties.
3. When the thickness of granite slab is less or equal to 15mm, the allowed deviation on the same slab is less than 1.5mm; when the thickness is more than 15mm, the deviation is less than 3.0mm.
 
The Allowed Angle LiMiT (AAL): Go Top
The AAL of normal type granite slab should accord with the stipulates in Sheet 3
 
Appearance Quality Go Top
As to patched slabs, the included angle of face and flank should not exceed 90o
The AAL of Special type slabs should tally with both parties’ agreement.
Appearance Quality
1. The hue and decorative pattern of same lot slabs should remain basically consistent.
2. The appearance disfigurement of face should accord with the stipulates in SHEET 4.
 
Sheet 1 Go Top
  Sheet 1
Unit:mm
Classification
RB & PL Series
Tenuity Surface& Mirror Surface
RU Series
Rough Surface
Grade
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
Length & Width
-1.0---0
-1.5---0
-1.0---0
-2.0---0
-3.0---0
Thickness
<=15
+0.5
+1.0
-2.0---+1.0
 
 
 
>15
-1.0
+2.0
-3.0---+2.0
-2.0---+1.0
-3.0---+2.0
-4.0---+2.0
 
Sheet 2 Go Top
  Sheet 2
Unit:mm
Length Scope
RB & PL Series
Tenuity Surface& Mirror Surface
RU Series
Rough Surface
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
<=400
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
400<L<1000< strong>
0.50
0.70
0.90
 
2.00
2.20
>=1000
0.80
1.00
1.20
2.00
2.50
2.80
 
Sheet 3 Go Top
  The Allowed Angle LiMiT (AAL):
  The AAL of normal type granite slab should accord with the stipulates in Sheet 3
  Sheet 3
Unit:mm
Width Scope
RB & PL Series
Tenuity Surface& Mirror Surface
RU Series
Rough Surface
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
<=400
 
 
0.80
 
0.80
1.00
>400
0.40
0.60
1.00
0.60
1.00
1.20
 
Sheet 4 Go Top
  Sheet 4
Defect Items
Specification Content
Defects calculated according as the following qualification.
Blue Chip
Excellent
Accepted
Edge
Entries/M
5mm< p>
 
 
 
Angle
Entries/Slab
2mm*2mm< p>
 
 
 
Veins Flaw
Strips/Slab
whose length is less than 1/10 Total Length  of the corresponding side.
Note: length below 20mm not calculated
 
1
2
Color Splash
Entries/Slab
15mm*15mm< p>
No Allowed
 
 
Color Stria
Strips/Slab
whose length is less than 1/10 Total Length  of the corresponding side.
Note: length below 40mm not calculated
 
2
3
Fosse
Fosses?appearancing of RU Series at face surface
Unconspicuous
Appearancing, but usage unswayed
 
Physical Performance Go Top
1. Mirror Surface Luminous Intensity
  1.1 The face of mirror surface slabs should have mirror polish effect to shine out objects.
  1.2 The brightness value of mirror surface slabs should be not less than 75 units or accord as the agreed samples.
2. The volume density should be not less than 2.50g/cm3.
3. The water absorption should be not more than 1.0%.
4. The compress strength after desiccation should be not less than 60.0MPa.
5. The transverse strength should be not less than 8.0MPa.

Stone Characte Go Top

The characteristic of nature stone Go Top
The nature stone is one of the building materials that mankind used at the earliest stage. The wonderful color in surface and rock evolvement become much more noble, bright texture by the design of the architecture.
Nowadays, more and more people try applying the rich color and plentiful vein to ameliorative city in monotonous landscape. For example be affixed in the stone concrete construction, or be affixed in the arched door and so on.
General characteristic Go Top
For the nature stone,the use of the physics material is more often,but the chemistry analysis is useful too. Such the examinatio to the some harmful oxide.For example:
In the big industry city of the eastern of the United States, the pollution of the air is serious, even through the surface granite will suffer to erode.
How to choose the material becomes much more inportant.The stone which contain the easily oxidizing material will be forbid to use.Such as the yellow iron mine, will born the stain, change colors or decay.
Some physical characteristics Go Top
The strength of anti- presses PSI( Kgs/ cm2) absorbs water rate the degree of hardness( Toughness Index)
Category
Compressive strength(kgs/m2)
Sob Rate(%)
Toughness Index
Abrasion Rate(%)
Granite
25,000(1,758)
0.3
19
41.5
Sandstone
22,900(1,610)
0.21
12
58.7
Quartzite
31,000(2,179)
0.24
19
26.1
Limestone
11,500(808)
0.61
8
33.8
Slate
21,800(1,533)
0.36
18
/
Serpentine
43,000(3,023)
0.74
13
18.5
 
The Contruction Characteristic of the Marble Go Top
Compressive strength PSI
6,012-16,750
Flexural strength PSI
1,095-2,709
Shear strength PSI
1,638-4,812
Modulus of Elasticity PSI
1.97-14.85X106
Density (Ibs/ft)
163.0-172.4
Heat exchange rate (k BTU/in/hr/f2t/0F)
10.45?5.56
Water vapour(Perm-Inch)
0.324-4.46
Creep-Deflation, inchs after 24HR
O-3.3?O-4
 
 
Compressive strength PSI
Pull Strength
Flexural modulus
Shear modulus
Spring modulus
Proportion
Granite
703-2813
42.2-70.3
91.4-169
140.6-302.3
4.0-6.7?0-5
2.65-2.75
Limestone
176-2000
19.7-62.6
42.2-155
84.4-210.9
2.1-7.3?0-5
2.0-2.7
Marble
562-1900
28.2-161.7
42.2-246
91.4-457
5.0-10.2?0-5
2.60-2.84
Basalt
1970-4710
/
/
/
/
2.4-3.1
Serpentine
773-1970
56.2-112.5
/
182.8-351.5
3.4-5.4?0-5
/
Sandstone
352-1405
19.7-35.2
35.2-70.3
21.1-210.9
1.3-5.4?0-5
2.5-2.7
Argillite
492-2180
211-302.3
282-633
140.6-253.1
6.3-10.5?0-5
2.6-3.3
 

Stone Maintenance Go Top

Stone Maintenance Go Top
Stone exposed in the air or used for a period of time. It would be come out many phenomenas as follows:
Yellow spot, the rust spot, white phenomenon - white thing run off, oil spot, salt spot, coffee etc.
Pure method Go Top
The physics washes and the chemistry washes are the common ways.
The physics washes is too expensive because it need the related equipments.So it often use chemistry method washes.
1.sour cleaning: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, lemon acid,grass acid etc of the inorganic acid uses. But it almost not to use it. because the inorganic acid will remain a little acid. It bad for carbonate stone material, so it should use organic acid more.
2.alkali cleaning: It is main to acidities infectant.
Protection method Go Top
It does not avoid to be dirty greasy and other phenomenon after being used.
How to maintain it?
 
Wash method: Wash with the neuter detergent and the soft things.
Protection method: It should use the high permeates protection to wash. This product can completely seep into the iner stone and clos the sligh hole, attain to prevent the infectant things into, and the most important is to use the surface protection at the last. It will be reach to the best protective effect.
Installation Go Top
one-off installation
built-up installation

Stone technology Go Top

Important Go Top
Stone is natural material, will be vary in color, veining, please allow the normal tolerance,subject to real material.
Size Go Top
Available both in standard sizes and also cut to customer requirement. Standard size: 300×300mm, 300×600mm, 400×400mm, 400×600mm, 600×600mm, 600×900mm, 800×800mm, 900×900mm, 1000×1000mm, 1’×1’×3/8"(12"×12"×3/8"), 1’×2’×3/8" (12"×24"×3/8"), 16"×16"×3/8", 18"×18"×3/8", etc. Half slabs size: 1800mm up×600mm up, 1800mm up×700mm up, 1800mm up×800mm up, 2400mm up×600mm up, etc. Slabs size: 2400mm up×1200mm up, etc. Random size are available, and we produce strict according to the customer’s specification.
Thickness: Typical thickness are 10mm, 12mm, 13mm, 15mm, 18mm, 20mm, 25mm, 30mm, 40mm, 50mm, 60mm, etc.
surface Go Top
Surface finishing including polish, sandblast, flamed, mushroom, natural, bush-hammered, chiselled, honed, cutting, rough, water-jet, flamed and brush, antique, etc.
Edge streatment Go Top
Laminated bullnose, Full bullnose, Half bullnose, Demi-bullnose, Ogee, bevel, eased, flat, radius, dupont, etc.
Package Go Top
For thin tiles(10-13mm thickness) every 4-10pcs in one polystyrene box or carton and then packed into strong wooden crates or pallet. For tiles(20mm above thickness) packed into strong wooden crates covered with transparent plastic film to prevent dust and wet. For random size slabs packed into wooden bundles.
Shipping and delivery Go Top
Because our products and quarry located in north china and south china, all our products loading and delivering from all available port, usually in XIAMEN PORT, SHENZHEN PORT, GUANGZHOU PORT, SHANGHAI PORT, TIANJIN PORT, QINGDAO PORT, we have a convenient and integrated system to control all the business successful. And we usually send samples and documents by FEDEX, DHL, UPS, etc.
Veining Go Top
Present on some marble and wooden surfaces: natural or artificial lines of different colour compared to the base
Color Go Top
Black, yellow, red, white, grey, blue, brown, green, cream, beige, golden, etc.
Abrasive(polishing) Go Top
Used to remove and cancel by means of friction. Abrasive substances are very hard and are used to hone, finish-off and polish surfaces. Abrasives are classified in natural abrasives: (grinder, corundum, silica and quartz) and artificial abrasives: (silicon carbon or carborundum, aluminium oxide, powder glass, steel and cast iron grains).
For more invasive roughing-off processes, coarse grain abrasives are used while increasingly finer grain abrasives are used for finishing-off and polishing processes.
Basalt Go Top
Igneous effusive neovolcanic rock with mainly porphyric structure, black or dark grey in colour.
Block Go Top
Large compact mass of any material.
Abrasion Go Top
Wearing and grinding of a surface through friction. Erosion caused by the mechanical action of sea water on the rocks, cause and effect.
Cancellation obtained by scraping. Thanks to a mechanical movement, the surface abrasion of the manufactured slab originates honed marble and granite.
Granite Go Top
Intrusive magmatic rock with high siliceous content featuring a holocrystalline structure, generally made up of orthoclase, quartz and mica.
Some granites may contain feldspar, sodium calcium, pyroxene, mica and amphibole and as accessory elements, magnetite, apatite, tourmaline and zircon.
Granite offers good resistance to atmospheric agents, is distributed in the earth抯 crust and is used as building and covering material. Granite is a common and widely-occurring group of intrusive felsic igneous rocks that forms at great depths and pressures under continents. Granite consists of orthoclase, plagioclase quartz, hornblende, biotite, muscovite and minor accessories such as magnetite, garnet, zircon and apatite minerals. Rarely a pyroxene is present. Ordinary granite always carries a small amount of plagioclase, but when this is absent the rock is referred to as alkali granite. An increasing proportion of plagioclase feldspar causes granite to pass into granodiorite. A rock consisting of equal proportions of orthoclase and plagioclase plus quartz may be considered a quartz monozonite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary granite. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the grained structure of such a crystalline rock. Granite occurs as stock-like masses and as batholiths often associated with mountain ranges and frequently of great extent. Granite has been intruded into the crust of the Earth during all geologic periods, except perhaps the most recent; much of it is of Precambrian age. Granite is widely distributed throughout the Earth. Because of its hardness and comparative cheapness in relation to marble, granite is often used to make kitchen countertops. A granite countertop can be cut in any shape, and it is virtually unscratchable. Very hot pots must not be placed onto it though, because the temperature differential could possibly crack the granite. Average density: 2750 kg/m3 (range 1741 to 2800)
Marble Go Top
Name generally used to define compact calcareous rock and non-calcareous rock that is easy to process. Thanks to the metamorphic effect, these rocks have acquired a more or less fine crystalline structure. Marble is said to be mono-chrome if the colour is uniform and polychrome in the presence of veins and speckles. The different nature and various distribution of the accessory components such as quartz, graphite and pyrites gives the marble various colours, from red to yellow and from grey to green; the arrangement of these minerals around the veins creates ornamental patterns. Marble is used for floors, walls, ornamental applications but is not highly resistant to atmospheric agents. Marble has a compression strength that ranges between 900 and 1200 kg/mÂł and a specific weight between 2400 and 2700 kg/m. Marble is generally mined in open air quarries with auger wire that enables the extraction of large blocks. These blocks are transported by sliding them over a bed of rubble to the saw mill where they are cut into slabs according to their colour, body and defects, using blades sprayed with water and quartz sand. They are honed by carborundum discs and are polished by means of abrasive powders that get finer and finer, with damp felt fitted on the turning disc. Marble is metamorphosed limestone, composed of very pure calcium carbonate, CaCO3. The softness of marble and its relative isotropy and homogeneity make marble very desirable for sculpture and building stone. Although marble comes from limestone, the temperatures and pressures necessary to form marble usually destroy any fossils that may have been present in the limestone.
Kinds of marble:
* Carrara (Italy)
* Pentelicus (Greece)
* Proconnesus (Turkey)
Carrara marble is prized for sculpture. In the building trades, the term "marble" is used for any massive, crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful for building stone. For example, Tennessee Marble is really a massive, highly fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician dolostone, known as the Holston Formation by geologists. Marble derives its name from the Greek marmaros, shining stone. [source: OED2]. This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal meaning "marble-like". In folklore, marble is associated with the astrological sign of Gemini. Pure white marble is an emblem of purity. It is also an emblem of immortality, and an ensurer of success in education.
Slate Go Top
Slate is a fine-grained metamorphic rock with perfect cleavage that allows it to split into thin sheets. Slate usually has a light to dark brown streak. Slate is produced by low grade metamorphism, which is caused by relatively low temperatures and pressures.
Slate has been used by man in a variety of ways over the years. One use for slate was in the making of headstones or grave markers. Slate is not very hard and can be engraved easily. The problem with slate though is its perfect cleavage. The slate headstones would crack and split along these cleavage planes. This is not a desirable attribute for a head stone. Slate was also used for chalk boards. The black color was good as a background and the rock cleaned easily with water. Today it is not very advantageous to use this rock because of its weight and the splitting and cracking over time.
Quartzite Go Top
Metamorphic rock rich in quartz and poor in or lacking mica. Quartzite is sandstone that has been metamorposed. Unlike sandstone, quartzite breaks through, not around, the quartz grains, producing a smooth surface instead of a rough and granular one. Quartzites are snowy white, less often pink or gray. They yield a thin and very barren soil and, because they weather slowly, tend to project as hills or mountain masses. Many prominent ridges in the Appalachian Mountains are composed of highly resistant tilted beds of quartzite. The term quartzite implies not only a high degree of hardening (induration), or "welding," but also a high content of quartz. Most quartzites contain 90 percent or more quartz, but some contain 99 percent and are the largest and purest concentrations of silica in the Earth抯 crust. Pure quartzites are a source of silica for metallurgical purposes and for the manufacture of brick. Quartzite is also quarried for paving blocks, riprap, crushed stone, railroad ballast, and roofing granules. In microscopic section the clastic structure of some quartzites is well preserved; the rounded sand grains are seen with quartz overgrowths deposited in crystalline continuity, so that optical properties of the grains are similar to those of the material surrounding them. In some cases a line of iron oxides may indicate the boundary of the original sand grain. Many quartzites, however, have been crushed, and the quartz largely is a mosaic of small, irregularly shaped crystalline fragments with interlocking margins. Sandstones turn into quartzite in two different ways. The first way involves low pressure and temperature, where circulating fluids fill the spaces between sand grains with silica cement. When this rock is broken, the fractures go right through the original grains, not around them. This kind of quartzite, orthoquartzite, is not strictly speaking a metamorphic rock because the original mineral grains are still there, and bedding planes and other sedimentary structures are still evident. Under the high pressures and temperatures of deep burial, the mineral grains recrystallize and all traces of the original sediments are erased. The result is a true metamorphic rock, called metaquartzite. This boulder is probably a metaquartzite. Quartzite is a very strong stone but is difficult to work. Because quartzite has a limited color range and is not often found in large bodies suited for quarrying, the building industry prefers granite for demanding
Limestone Go Top
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, mainly composed of mineral calcite. The primary source of the calcite is usually marine organisms, which settle out of the water column and are deposited on the ocean floors as pelagic ooze (but see lysocline for information on calcite dissolution). Secondary calcite may also be deposited in super-saturated meteoric waters, as is evidenced by the creation of stalagmites and stalactites. Bands of limestone emerge from the Earth抯 surface in often spectacular rocky outcrops and islands. For example the Verdon Gorge in France, Malham Cove in North Yorkshire, England and the Ha Long Bay National Park in Vietnam. Limestone consists of sedimentary rock wholly or in large part composed of calcium carbonate. It is ordinarily white but may be coloured by impurities, iron oxide making it brown, yellow, or red and carbon making it blue, black, or gray. The texture varies from coarse to fine. Most limestones are formed by the deposition and consolidation of the skeletons of marine invertebrates; a few originate in chemical precipitation from solution. Limestone deposits are frequently of great thickness. Limestone often tends to be more expensive than Marble, Travertine and Granite, it also tends to be very popular with many discerning Architects, Designers, Builders, and Consumers. More and More interior d??cor publications are emphasising on the use of Limestone and Travertine not only as a wise investment long-term to ceramics and terracotta but for the ease of maintenance and overall appearance. It is quarried for roadbeds and gravel roads, building and landscape construction, and cement manufacture.
Sandstone Go Top
Sandstone is an arenaceous sedimentary rock composed mainly of feldspar and quartz and varies in colour (in a similar way to sand), through grey, yellow, red, and white. Sandstones are often relatively soft and easy to work which therefore make them a common building and paving material. Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to organic, like chalk or coal). They are formed from the cemented grains that may be fragments of a pre-existing rock, or else just mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, clays and silica. Grain sizes in sands are in the range of 0.1mm to 2mm. (Rocks with smaller grainsizes include silts and clays and are typically called argillaceous sediments. Rocks with larger grainsizes include both breccias and conglomerates and are termed rudaceous sediments.). The principle mechanism for the formation of sandstone is by the sedimentation of grains out of a fluid, such as a river, lake or sea. The environment of deposition is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which on a finer scale include its grainsize, sorting, composition and on a larger scale include the rock geometry. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environments 1. Rivers (levees, point bars, channel sands) Lakes Marine environments 1.Shoreface sands, Deltas, Turbidites (submarine channels) Types of sandstone Once the geological characteristics of a sandstone have been established, it can then be broadly divided between three groups: 1.arkosic sandstones, which have a high (>25%) feldspar content
2. quartzose sandstones, such as quartzite, which have a high (>90%) quartz content.
3. argillaceous sandstones, such as greywacke, which have a significant fine-grained element
Travertine Go Top
Travertine is a form of massive calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 , resulting from deposition by springs or rivers. It is often beautifully coloured and banded as a result of the presence of iron compounds or other (e.g., organic) impurities. This material is variously known as calc-sinter and calcareous tufa (when used for decorative purposes), in fact Travertine is actually a dense closely compacted form of limestone. Travertine is an excellent product for residential and commercial use and is becoming increasingly popular because not only does it have the elegant look of marble, but also once sealed Travertine tiles require very little maintenance, which allows for a timeless & beautiful appearance. Travertine is available in a number of finishes ranging from polish, cross-cut, regular-cut, honed & filled, honed & unfilled, tumbled, distressed-edge, patinato and unpolished to name a few. Travertine tile possess a wide range of colors, and cover the spectrum from pure white to deep mahogany. The various hues of Travertine tile can sometimes be constant throughout large pieces and at times are blended. Travertine tile displays distinct veins at times and is a very sturdy natural stone. Onyx marble, Mexican onyx, and Egyptian or Oriental alabaster are terms applied to travertine. Travertine is generally less coarse-grained and takes a higher polish than stalactite and stalagmite, which are similar in chemical composition and origin.
Mineral Go Top
Homogenous body in which two identically directed portions have the same physical and chemical properties. They are classified in inorganic, organic, solid, liquid and gaseous. According to their origin, they are defined as primary (syngeneic or epigeneic) if they are found in the place where they formed a, nd secondary if they have been transported, generally moved by water, from their place of origin to that where they are found.
From an industrial point of view, a mineral is said to be rich or poor according to the useful mineral percentage it contains. A raw mineral is any mineral taken from the ground.
Quarry Go Top
Open air mine of rocks and minerals. Mining laws distinguish quarries and mines differently, according to the type of material mined. There are quarries of inert materials for cement-based conglomerates, of building materials (clay) or cement (limestone) of marble and ornamental stones and quarries for road constructions (chippings, crushed ballast and rubble)

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